The main areas of surgical treatment in dentistry are the following:
Correction of gum pathologies, the presence of inflammatory processes in them.
Tooth preserving or tooth extraction.
Preparation for implantation.
In the first case, the most common indication for surgery is periodontitis. The disease is infectious in nature, under the influence of pathogenic microorganisms, the ligamentous apparatus, the bone tissue of the tooth are destroyed. Therefore, foci of inflammation should be removed in a timely manner. If deep gingival pockets have already formed and access to them is difficult, an open curettage (patchwork) is necessary. During its conduct, all affected tissues are cleaned around the tooth, bone-forming material is laid. This allows you to remove inflammation and reduce the depth of the pathological pocket, thereby facilitating the patient’s condition.
Surgical treatment is also used for pathology of the frenum of the lower (upper) lip or tongue. Frenuloplasty prevents gum disease, the formation of diastema, difficulties with diction.
Vestibuloplasty is an operation that allows you to solve the problem of an insufficiently deep vestibule of the oral cavity. If, due to this defect, access to the gingival pockets is limited, stable fixation of dentures is impossible or there are speech disorders, this procedure cannot be dispensed with. Since pain in the gums or their swelling is possible in the postoperative period, for the speedy healing of the wound, the dentist prudently applies special membranes (consisting of plasma) to the entire area of the lesion.
In the second case, surgical treatment is used either to preserve the tooth or to remove it. Tooth-saving operations include:
Resection of the tooth root (its apex). In the presence of cysts, granulomas carry out their slice together with the apex of the root, also resection is necessary if it is impossible to treat the tooth through the canal.
Amputation of the root.
In multi-rooted teeth, when one root is affected, it is eliminated, and the tooth remains in place and performs its functions.
If the tooth could not be saved, the surgeon removes it. It can be simple – a movable tooth breaks out, or more complex, using special tools.
In the third case, surgical treatment is necessary in preparation for dental implants. For example, if there is a lack of the required volume of bone tissue, it is first restored – in place of the missing tooth, bone-plastic material is placed.
For dentists of a professional dental clinic, only proven and effective painkillers are used for any type of surgery, which allows patients to withstand all these unpleasant but necessary procedures without fear and pain. The extensive experience of surgeons, modern equipment and materials, sterility of instruments allow surgical treatment of teeth and gums with minimal risk of complications. The only thing the patient needs to do is to strictly follow all the recommendations of the attending physician.