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Remineralization of tooth enamel (fluoridation)

Remineralization of tooth enamel (fluoridation) is the saturation of tooth enamel with mineral components, leading to the restoration of the structure.

The main structural elements of teeth are calcium and phosphorus. Fluorine, despite its ability to reduce the solubility of enamel, can hardly be considered a structural element of teeth, since its percentage in healthy enamel is on average 0.15%. However, fluoride is a factor affecting the formation of acid-resistant forms of apatite (the main substance of tooth enamel). That is why, remineralization of the teeth is carried out using compounds containing calcium and phosphorus. To increase the effectiveness, remterapy is combined with the use of fluoride-containing drugs. Most often, fluorides are prescribed after completion of a course of remineralizing therapy, to reduce the release of calcium from tooth enamel.

To achieve the effect of remineralization, a number of conditions must be met:

remineralizing agents should come into contact with tooth enamel. That is, the surface of the teeth should be cleaned of dental deposits.
remineralizing agents should be on the enamel surface for a long time; Abstinence from eating rough food for 4-5 hours.
Indications for remterapiya:

all patients (adults and children) with dental caries, before filling to restore enamel along the edge of the carious cavities, and further, to increase the service life of fillings;
in order to prevent caries in children during the period of immature enamel, as well as in pregnant and lactating women, the enamel becomes more durable and resistant to dissolution;
with initial caries in the stage of a white spot – the weakened enamel area is saturated with minerals, the spot is reduced or completely disappears;
with non-carious lesions of the teeth (fluorosis, enamel hypoplasia, erosion of tooth enamel, wedge-shaped defect, abnormal abrasion, etc.) – to reduce tooth sensitivity and strengthen affected tissues, spots on the enamel become less noticeable, enamel shine appears;
to reduce the increased sensitivity of the teeth – the effect is associated with the restoration of the enamel structure, while most of the means to reduce the increased sensitivity seal the dentinal tubules, without affecting the solubility of the enamel;
during the period of teeth whitening and at the end – in order to reduce the risk of caries, stabilize the results of whitening and reduce hypersensitivity;
during orthodontic treatment and upon completion – for the treatment of initial forms of caries and caries prophylaxis.
Types of remineralization:

fluoridation is the most widely used form of remineralization. The main active element is fluorine; it actively saturates the teeth with fluorine. Fluoridation can be carried out using special mouthguards with gel, tooth enamel coating with fluoride varnish and deep fluorination based on the chemical reaction of fluorine crystals and silicic acid with enamel.
remineralization based on fluorine-free preparations; they are usually made on the basis of calcium and phosphates. These techniques are safer, but considered less effective. They can be used at home, since fluoride-free pastes and gels do not harm health if swallowed.

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